Biofertilizers are living or dormant microorganisms that contribute to the growth and development of plants or crops by increasing the availability and supply of primary nutrients to the plant. They are applied on seeds, plant surface, or soil by colonizing the rhizosphere and thus making easy plant nutrition.
The use of biological fertilizers is now very much in vogue, but why is it necessary to add fertilizers to crops? The reason is that when we harvest and remove the plants from a field, we are taking the water and nutrients from that field that end up in our body or other animals. In other words, they would not naturally return to the soil as they do in natural ecosystems where there is no human intervention.
Since the origin of agriculture, humans have fertilized the land, initially using organic matter from manure and since the end of the 19th century using chemical and synthetic fertilizers, and after the Second World War, its use has been more widespread and intensive.
The main problems of the intensification of the application of chemical fertilizers are that they eliminate the natural microflora of the soil, increase soil salinization, hinder the balance of soil nutrients and contaminate the soil and ground and surface water due to excess concentration and solubility of nutrients.
Due to this and also to a greater awareness of society to obtain healthier food, organic farming practices are being promoted. Within these practices, the research of plant growth promoters or biofertilizers has received an important impulse.
These biofertilizers include bacteria, fungi and cyanobacteria. Among the former, free and symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria stand out, and among the fungi, mycorrhizae formers stand out, that is, the symbiosis between a fungus and the root of the plants.
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